With configuration changes and individual requirements, the process actually implemented may differ somewhat from the process as listed above. The list above, however, provides a good overview. The SAP system tends to split work order processing into two paths. One is preventive maintenance, which is known as planned maintenance in many SAP documents. SAP also sometimes refers to preventive maintenance work orders as scheduled orders. The other work order processing path, which is often referred to as breakdown maintenance, includes all non-preventive work orders.
The distinctive difference between the two different types of work order processes is how the processes begin. Preventive maintenance work orders are typically created from maintenance plans and scheduled at regular intervals. Non-preventive maintenance work orders are typically created for specific purposes and are generally not repeated. To clarify the previous statements, preventive maintenance orders are scheduled, while non-preventive maintenance orders can be scheduled or unscheduled.
In some SAP documentation, reference has been made to planned and unplanned orders. Historically, those terms meant preventive and non-preventive, respectively, causing some confusion. When those terms appear in SAP documentation, be aware of the context in which they are used. Notification Creation The non-preventive work order process typically begins with the creation of a notification.
The notification is intended for someone often an operator to communicate that there may be a problem or a breakdown. It is often the responsibility of a different person to determine whether the problem warrants the creation of a work order. As mentioned previously, it is technically possible to operate the Plant Maintenance module with notifications and no work orders or with work orders and no notifications, however some functionality will be lost without both components of the module.
Notifications, in addition to providing a problem reporting tool, serve as a standard record of problems and the actions that were taken to correct the problems.
Through the use of the catalog system and subsequent analysis, it is possible to recognize patterns and trends. Action can then be taken to prevent recurring or growing problems. In its most simple state, the only absolute requirements for a notification are:. Some other field values, such as dates and the person reporting the problem or requirement, are usually provided by default. Of course, additional requirements for a notification will differ among implementations.
Some of the basic integration points are:.Section 8. Workflow management offers a powerful means of automating various components of the work order life cycle across the entire enterprise. Based on a set of procedural rules and triggering events, documents, information, and tasks pass efficiently from one participant to another for action, and minimal user involvement is required.
For example, you can use a workflow process to:. Execute conditional processing, which is logic that depends on supplied criteria, such as currency amount, status, and priority.
A workflow process contains activities and related subprocesses that are specific to a particular function that you want to automate.
The Work Order Process - SAP PM
The Work Orders system includes predefined workflow processes that are specific to the work order life cycle. You can modify or add to these processes, if necessary. Typically, you need to customize workflow processes to meet the needs of the organization. An example of a predefined process for Work Orders is the process for work order approval.
Workflow processes refer to processes that you have set up to be handled through scripted workflow. For each process that you define, you can:. Determine the workflow activities involved in the process, such as sending an approval message, calling an application, or launching a subprocess.
Determine the path, such as an approval route, that a process takes, and whether the process depends on some conditional value, such as work order status, amount, or date. Activity conditions determine the next workflow activity in the process. You can set up a hierarchy of processes by creating nested subprocesses so that one process calls another. This procedure is especially useful when you need to reuse components within other processes.
For example, the initial workflow process for work orders determines the document type of the work order and calls other processes that are based on the document type, such as the process to determine the work order type. Routes define the path along which a workflow process moves a work order. Depending on business needs, a route can be relatively simple and sequential, or increasingly complex, with joins or splits, parallel routing, iterative routing such as a loopand so on.
Process rules define what information is to be routed and to whom. For example, you can set up rules that define conditions that a work order must meet before a workflow process advances the order to the next activity in the process, as well as rules that govern who receives an approval request. The system uses these process rules:. Activity conditions determine the next activity, based on information that you set up in an attribute data structure, such as work order status.This document aims at explaining the corrective maintenance process in SAP.
Corrective maintenance: triggered by the detection of a defect. Breakdown maintenance: work that has to be executed in emergency. Calibration maintenance: ensures that precision instruments keep accurate measurements.
Refurbishment maintenance: repair work done on materials subject to split valuation. This document will focus on the corrective maintenance process. This document can be created by any of the 3 maintenance roles. The maintenance notification is triggered by the identification of a defect on a specific technical object. There are 3 types of standard maintenance notification: maintenance request, malfunction report and activity report.
The creator of the maintenance notification can enter the technical object, the description of the issue and the main work center responsible for the work. After creation, the maintenance notification will be verified by the maintenance planner and the work will be dispatched among the maintenance technicians.
The maintenance order gets created with a certain order type, priority, technical object and a planning plant. I provide you below with a high-level overview of what is the role of each tab in the maintenance order management process.
The maintenance order header data answers at a high level to the following questions:. The operations tab provide details about which operations are done, by whomin which sequence and for which duration. The components tab is used whenever some materials are required for a specific operation. The partner tab is used to display the partners involved in the maintenance order.
It also specifies, when applicable, which maintenance notification is linked to the order. It has no impact on the process as such.
The planning data tab is not relevant for the corrective maintenance process. It is used in the preventive maintenance process. It displays the maintenance plan and the task list from which the preventive maintenance order is generated.
The confirmation on the maintenance order is done through the transaction IW The confirmation document contains: the actual time spent on the tasks and, when applicable, the materials goods movements and measurement documents for technical objects.
When it is flagged on, it means that there is no work remaining on the operation. After the confirmation is done, it is possible to display the variances between the planned and actual durations.In addition to the contents of a purchase order or subcontract order, the work order maps the most important production phases at the supplier.
The phase differentiates between the following data:. Request data and confirmation data that the customer and supplier negotiate in the work order and agree upon as planned data. Actual data that the supplier regularly reports in the work order for the phase once he or she has consumed or produced a component quantity.
The work order allows the monitoring of production process at the supplier: SAP SNC compares the planned data and the actual data for the work order. Deviations such as an insufficient projected yield due to scrap that is too high are thus visible early on, so that customer and supplier can take proactive measures.
The header contains central data, such as customer and supplier, or data regarding the purchase order used to create the work order. The item contains the ordered primary product.
Therefore, the Web UI does not explicitly differentiate between header data and item data. Only the work order number, for example, is visible. The phases required to produce the product are assigned to the item. A phase represents a production step at the customer. The transportation phase follows the production phases.
The transportation phase represents the time period between the shipping at the ship-from location of the product ordered by the customer and the inbound delivery of this product at the customer location. A phase belongs to a particular phase type, such as production or transportation.
The output components also include the co-products, which result during production of the primary product and which the supplier can send to the customer together with the primary product. The work order can copy the subcontracting components from a subcontract order as input components or, in the case of co-products, as output components.
Depending on the settings in work order configuration, SAP SNC creates a work order for each purchase order schedule line or for each purchase order item. The data in the purchase order schedule line results in a delivery in the work order for the ordered product.
A work order for a purchase order item can also contain several deliveries, one for each purchase order schedule line.
From the phase perspective, a delivery simultaneously represents an input and an output of the transportation phase. The quantity of the primary or co-product that the supplier sends to the customer on the shipping date from the ship-from location is the transportation phase input. The same! The transportation phase input and transportation phase belonging to a delivery have the same quantity. On the Web screens for work orders, you see - depending on the context - both representations: On the Tracking tab page, you see deliveries in the delivery overview.
On the Instructions tab page, which shows the phase inputs and phase outputs for all phases of the work order, the deliveries are displayed as transportation phase inputs and transportation phase outputs. During the negotiation phase, the customer or supplier can change the deliveries or create new ones.
After the customer and supplier have reached an agreement for the work order, SAP SNC copies the agreed deliveries as identical request schedule lines and confirmation schedule lines to the purchase order item. At first, the phases of a newly-created work order contain only the request PIOs of the customer.
The plan PIOs, with which the supplier ultimately has to comply, are the result of negotiations between customer and supplier. The supplier can accept or decline the customer's request PIOs.Aspects of safety in the workplace must often be considered when executing maintenance work in order to ensure a safe working environment.
In these cases, the execution of maintenance work not only necessitates the planning of maintenance tasks, but also the planning of a procedure for how to work safely on the affected parts of the system.
In addition, clear communication between all the employees or departments involved in maintenance work using work clearance management is essential. Owing to the complexity of the process, it is important to regulate all areas of responsibility clearly and assign the necessary tasks accordingly. For example, employees with special operational authorizations are required, who are allowed to issue an availability permit.
The standard process flow for order processing in the SAP component Plant Maintenance PM using the enhanced model of work clearance management comprises the following steps:. This can be performed manually using a malfunction report or automatically using a SCADA system in the control room, or by using deadline monitoring of maintenance plans in preventive maintenance. You plan the activities and resources required, create a cost estimate and perform scheduling.
If the work to be executed requires safety measures, you must also assign special approvals, which initiate work clearance management, to the order. You create the necessary work approval. This contains all the applications, such as the work clearance application with the corresponding operational work clearance documents. Once the safety measures have been implemented, the status "Released for execution" for maintenance work to start can be issued.
During and after the completion of the work, you confirm the resources required for example, materials, times, and external services and technical findings. After the order has been technically completed, the business completion is performed with settlement of the order.Notifications can maintain statistical information, such as mean- time- between- failures, that can be important in reducing breakdown maintenance work.
Work orders maintain the essential integration with other modules, including cost information. In addition, the relationship between notifications and work orders provides a method for approval of requested work. SAP allows work orders to be settled to variety of receivers, including cost centers, projects, internal orders, other work orders, and so on.
If equipment has been assigned to the appropriate cost centers, for example, work orders created for that equipment would, by default, settle to those cost centers.
Non-PM notification types should not be deleted without determining that other modules will never use them. Notifications, in addition to the functionality listed above, track and compile statistical information and history regarding the objects against which they were created.
A notification, however, retains no cost information and has no significant integration with other modules. A malfunction report notification is, as the name suggests, a report that malfunction has occurred. Usually, a malfunction report is used where it might be beneficial to record breakdown information such as mean-time between-failures or mean-time-to-repair.PP Order Status TECO Effects
The relevant piece of equipment may be completely stopped or its performance may be reduced. A maintenance request notification is usually used to request maintenance work on a piece of equipment that may be functioning satisfactorily, but whose operator, for example, may see a potential problem. An activity report notification is normally used to record work that has already been performed in order to maintain complete statistical history for the relevant equipment.
Although other notification types may be defined, the majority of implementations should find that the three default notification types described above would suffice. The historical information recorded through the use of notifications is best done with the use of catalogswhich are described in the section on catalogs, below. The advantage of using standard codes and descriptions instead of allowing free-form descriptions is that when the information is summarized, it is possible to see how many times a particular problem has occurred with a particular piece of equipment within a specific time frame and how many times each maintenance activity was performed to resolve the problem.
Further analysis allows the tracking of problems to a particular manufacturer, if manufacturer data is recorded for equipment. Without standard codes it would be difficult, at best, to summarize such information into a usable format. A catalog profile provides a means of grouping catalog codes that are relevant to a particular function, for example. The codes within a catalog profile are made available to notifications based on the object piece of equipment, for example against which the notification is written.
If a piece of equipment has a catalog profile assigned to it, only the codes within that catalog profile will be available to notifications written for that piece of equipment. A catalog profile, therefore, can be a method of reducing the number of codes to those relevant for an object. Within a catalog profile are code groupswhich can be used to further reduce the quantity of codes from which to choose. Codes can be grouped into equipment types, for example, so that the types of damage for pumps are contained in a separate code group than the types of damage for motors.
The two main factors for separating the codes are:. Finally, the codes within each code group are defined. Ensure that the codes are relevant to the group.
Ideally, the number of code groups from which to choose should be minimized, as should the number of codes within each code group. In some situations, particularly where the use of codes is regulated, it may not be possible to minimize the number of codes.
For Plant Maintenance purposes, the catalogs typically used are damage, cause of damage, object part, activities, tasks, and sometimes coding.
Other catalogs, if required, may be defined, but bear in mind that the catalog code can only be one character or digit. Since SAP reserves the right to use all the digits and the characters A to O inclusive, only the codes P to Z may be used to define other desired catalogs. A sequence of tasks or operations can be included on the work order. Labor and materials that will be required to complete the work are defined on the work order while it is in the planning stage.
This provides planned labor and material costs. If planned materials are purchased independently of work orders and are kept in stock, the work order will generate a reservation for such materials. If planned materials are not kept in stock and must be purchased specifically for the work order, the work order will generate a purchase requisition for such materials. Planned labor can be performed by internal resources employees or by external resources contractors.Workflows are a key component of SAP system wherein they help design the business processes - it can be a simple release or a complex repeated business process such as creating a material master, etc.
The workflow allows the users to manage business processes in an efficient manner such that it can be aligned with compliance. Workflows ensure that right information is sent to the right person at the right time in a correct sequence. To perform a complex task in SAP system such as invoice approval, purchase request, etc. These steps can be performed manually or by using some formal communication such as email, notes, etc.
The above image depicts a SAP Workflow process. It is a tool for automating business processes and works uniformly across all the applications. As you can see, it is suitable where the business processes involve multiple people or a group of people. Business workflows can easily be integrated with Organization Management and SAP NetWeaver BI for analysis purposes so it can easily determine the business processes that suits your organization.
There are different reasons why we need Workflow in business process in SAP system. The longest duration in any business process is the wait time. The above image shows a standard Purchase Requisition process. It shows that each step involves wait time in the business process and with the use of a standard SAP Workflow, this wait time can be eliminated.
Hence, a lot of wait time is added to the cycle. Auditing and Compliance - Areas where auditing is required or any specific compliance has to be based on courtly laws, SOX, etc. They are tough to manage using manual business process.
Specific Processes - Processes which involve standard repeated steps and follow specific business rules. Example: When a new BP is created, you need to define contact information, credit limit, and other information for managing process.
It is recommended to manage these specific processes using SAP Workflow. With the use of SAP Workflows, organizations can easily overcome these challenges and can also perform detailed reporting such as executing time, wait time, etc.
SAP Business Workflow - Quick Guide
In SAP system, the workflow ensures that right information is sent to the right person at the right time. Users can easily use these workflows to map the business processes or these can also be edited using the workflow builder.
To create the workflows which meets your business process requirement, you should use the Workflow Builder. Workflow provides automation of business processes that consist of sequence of tasks, activities and steps.
Using workflows, it is easy to manage task dependency and to send notifications in SAP mailbox about pending actions. With the use of SAP Workflows, it is easy for users to know what tasks have to be performed. Work items are sent to the user in notifications and with a single click, it calls the correct T-code and navigates to the required screen in the application.
SAP SD - Sales Order Processing
SAP applications contain workflows, which are ready to use. With the use of different workflow wizards, users can also create a specific part of Business workflows. The workflow builder can be used to display and to make changes to the existing workflows. Workflows are useful for processes that include several people or group of people, sequence of tasks, and coordination between different objects.